Wednesday, December 25, 2019

Thoreaus Overall Message In Walden - 1133 Words

What is oversoul?- Placing more importance on connecting with yourself and nature. Everything has a spirit and every spirit is connected to everything in the world. For example, trees and connected to people and people to cats. What is your favorite Thoreau’s quote and why? The mass of men lead lives of quiet desperation. To me it means that a lot of people are depressed about their lives but on the outside they fake a smile and so we think that they’re happy in there lives. Which is not always true. My parents always told me to never judge a book by its cover, its not until you open it and discover for yourself what’s true and the same goes for people. You have to get to know†¦show more content†¦But all these times and places and occasions are now and here. God himself culminates in the present moment, and will never be more divine in the lapse of all the ages.) List 3 three characteristics of magical realism? A metamorphosis takes place but it’s a commodity. Having angels, ghosts in the story but using them in an unusual way. Objects may have their own lives to live. How is magical realism used and Metamorphosis? Well for starters the lead character that gets turned into a cockroach without any explanation. Instead of Gregor trying to figure out the why and how he just goes on with life. He’s still worried about working at his job even though we know as the reader that he clearly cant perform the duties required for his job. Another part of this is the unmeasurable amount of love and respect he has for his parents that basically forgot about him and his sister. I still can’t understand how his whole family is dependent upon him but yet they treat so awful. What is the overall message in metamorphosis? Families don’t have the unconditional love that they claim. If you’re not useful they can discard you like you’re not even a family member. And that we need to get out of traditional roles and systems that keep our lives so routine that our lives roll by without else living and enjoying them. How is magical realism used in An Old Man with Enormous Wings? It has an angel in it which is a magicalShow MoreRelatedCompare And Contrast Thoreau And Walden1424 Words   |  6 Pagesto offer in life, as well as the symbolism behind nature and its creatures in their works of literature, in â€Å"Walden†, and â€Å"The House of Light†, Both authors discuss their views of nature and the beauty of the world that they want to make familiar to their audience. In this essay, I’ll provide my reasoning behind this statement. In â€Å"Walden†, Thoreau talks about his experience living at Walden pond for what he said was two years, two months and two days where he for the most part, isolated himself fromRead MorePerception as a Defining Factor in Our Lives772 Words   |  4 Pagesreligious, political, sexual, and gender bias just to name a few. It is because of these biases that peoples perception is narrowed and what is deemed as â€Å"civilized† or the â€Å"right† thing to do may not always be one hundred percent true. In the book Walden by Henry David Thoreau we see a man who has looked past social norms and blazed his own path towards individual enlightenment. This is again illustrated in Lars Eighner’s essay, On Dumpster Diving. Here we see an individual that practices somethingRead MoreEarly American Literature Essay1511 Words   |  7 Pagesat all times according to his rigorous principles, which became the subject of many of his writings. In Walden, Thoreau not only t ests the theories of Transcendentalism, he re-enacts the collective American experience of the 19th century, living on the frontier. The overall story of Walden is in fact a view on Thoreaus radical and controversial perspective of society. Many of Thoreaus repeated, irrelevant details can be traced to his description of what is wrong with the American society.Read MoreMasculinity in Chuck Palahniuks Work7062 Words   |  29 Pageswill retreat to empty zoos and lock itself in cages as protection against bears and big cats and wolves.17   This ideal is ridiculous and truly highlights how extreme his opposition to modernisation his. His ideal reminds me of Henry David Thoreau’s book Walden.18 Thoreau spent two years being self sufficient in a woodland because he hated technology’s effects of humanity. However, it later came to light that Throreau’s experiment had been a farce and he his mother had done his laundry and cookedRead MoreHumanities11870 Words   |  48 Pagesgood plate of char kway teow. Therefore, in order to know good art when you see it, you need to have seen a lot of art - both good and bad - in order to make the comparison. The fact is that mankind has been producing art for so long that the overall body of knowledge on art has become so complex that ordinary people cannot comprehend the scope of the subject without some form of structured education. Most people, however, continue to attempt to appraise art without investing the time and energy

Monday, December 16, 2019

The Theory Of Management And Management - 2177 Words

F. W. Taylor Scientific Management Scientific management, also called Taylorism, was a theory of management that analyses and synthesizes workflow. Its main objective is the improvement of economic efficiency, especially labour productivity. It was one of the first attempts to apply science to the engineering of processes and management. Its development began with Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s in manufacturing. Its peak of influence came in the 1910s; in the 1920s, it was still influential, but began an era of competition and syncretism with opposing or complementary ideas. Although the scientific direction of a theory or school of distinct thought was obsolete in the 1930s, most of its themes are still important elements of industrial engineering and management today. These include the analysis; synthesis; logic; rationality; empiricism; work ethic; efficiency and waste disposal; standardization of best practices; contempt for tradition preserved only for herself or to protect the social status of particular workers with particular skill sets; the transformation of craft production to mass production; and transfer between workers and workers in the tools, processes and documentation. Pursuit of economic efficiency: Although the terms scientific management and Taylorism are generally treated as synonyms, work of Frederick Taylor marks only the first form of scientific management, followed by other approaches; So in the theory ofShow MoreRelatedThe Theory Of Management And Management1690 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Management is one of the remarkable activities within human society began with a group or to an larger organization that are able to accomplish a same goals and objectives, by defining what is management and how is important to human being society many management theorists have produces (many models that can be used for successful organization change and winners respond to the past and complexity of change and adapt learn and act quickly (Mildred,G. Sonia T. 2008 ) different theories or viewsRead MoreManagement Theory And Management Theories1254 Words   |  6 Pagespurpose of developing the management theories is to bring out better ways to manage people. According to Aguinaldo Powell (2002), management theory evolves con-stantly with the continuous stream of new ideas that come from the attempts to transform theory into practice, and vice versa. As essential personnel identify promising methods that assist in managing responsibilities, it will lead to management theories pr ogressing. This paper will il-lustrate how management theories have emerged over theRead MoreManagement Theory And Management Theories1272 Words   |  6 Pagespurpose of developing the management theories is to bring out better ways to manage people. According to Aguinaldo Powell (2002), management theory evolves con-stantly with the continuous stream of new ideas that come from the attempts to transform theory into practice, and vice versa. As essential personnel identify promising methods that assist in managing responsibilities, it will lead to management theories progressing. This paper will il-lustrate how management theories have emerged over theRead MoreManagement Theory Of Management And Management937 Words   |  4 Pagesnumber of theories have been used in company management. However, management of company could not be effective if only rely on theories. In fact, a good company development requires not only suitable theories selection but also consistency wit h practice in appropriate organization environment. Further, a company’s successful also need team work, creatively to together process. This essay focuses on how to make the company management effectively with some cases. There is no doubt that theory of managementRead MoreManagement Theories And Management Theory1003 Words   |  5 PagesManagement Theories Management theory can be used in many organizations when starting out a business. It addresses how managers and leaders relate to their organization in the knowledge of their goals. It implements on how to set the goals and motivate their employees to perform in a high standard. Management theory consist of three important aspects operation strategy, innovation management and process management. Operation Strategy is to maximize the effectiveness of the whole production, butRead MoreManagement Theories Of Management Theory2222 Words   |  9 PagesManagement Theories Evolution Management practice cannot exist without the support of a theory. The complex character of management as the scholarly discipline, the variety of opinions concerning the essence and content of management theory, require systematizing knowledge about this phenomenon. Management theory is a relatively new science since its systematic development and academic research has started mostly in the 20th century. Although it is difficult to name the most important theories andRead MoreThe Management Theory Of Management1229 Words   |  5 PagesManagement has experienced remarkable shifts in the way that organizations conduct business particularly in the last century, due to the evolving workplace as well as tremendous changes in the roles of leaders in organizations. Early managers often relied on authoritative tactics to get the job done, which we have learned from history does not work very well for many modern organizations. In this paper, I will be analyzing the management approach my o rganization takes and whether this is the bestRead MoreTheories Of Management And Management1721 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Management exists in business and human organizations; it is the set of tasks, activities leading to achieve a common desired objectives through people and resources. Management takes place within a structured organizational scenery with specified roles. It is the framework to what management is all about. Classical school Taylor, Fayol, Weber, HR School Hawthorne, Chester Barnard Blake Mouton’s, Mayo. Classical management school had three mainstreams namely Classical ScientificRead MoreThe Contingency Management Theory And Management Theories1164 Words   |  5 Pagesof management, understand different management theories and to apply them appropriately depending on the organization, the mission and the situation. Flexibility is one of the greatest traits a manager can possess in an extremely competitive market. One management theory that subscribes to flexibility is the contingency management theory. Adaptability is crucial in today’s business environment, e specially for organizations trying to remain significant in global industries. All management theoriesRead MoreThe Theory Of Management And The Scientific Management Theory Essay1208 Words   |  5 PagesTheories of management date back to the beginning of times. Every aspect of life contains some form of management. From managing oneself, to managing employees, to managing an entire corporation, management is a key part of life. Over time different theories have been developed and have evolved. Some of the first theories ever explored include the administrative management theory and the scientific management theory. While both of these theories were studied in depth, I believe that one of the greatest

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Human Relations and Life Transitions for Piaget - myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theHuman Relations and Life Transitions for Piaget Thoery. Answer: Introduction The childhood is one of the crucial phases of everyones life. At that stage, the child learns many things that help them in the long run of their life. Initially, they learn from their parents, and then move to school and so on. If any of the phases is not properly guided then they may take the wrong step. There are various theories that explain the different stages of the child, provide the guideline about their freedom and responsibilities. The transition of life includes several hurdles and challenges. So, learning the theories and adopting them in the daily life will change the life of a child. Scenario 2 Piaget's theory The Piaget's theory of the cognitive development deals with the issues that how a child constructs the mental model of the world. The theory works with the genetic epistemology that is the origin of the thinking. The term genetics deals with the study from where the things come from that are the origin(Bridges Bridges, 2017). The Epistemology is more interested about the elementary categories of thinking that is to speak, the overall framework or architectural properties of the intelligence. The main aim of this theory is to measure the ability of jack that how he count well, spell or solve the mental ability problems called as Intelligence questions(Etzkowitz Leydesdorff, 2014). According to the Piaget's theory, the mental structure of jack is different from the others depending on which the learning and knowledge are based. The target of this theory is to describe the different mechanisms by which the infant, then the child, grow into an individual who is able to think and differentiate the various hypotheses. The three basic components of the Piaget's cognitive theory are schemes, adoption process which enables the transition in the children from stage to the other and the various stages of the cognitive development(Kail Cavanaugh, 2015). Erikson's Theory The Erikson theory of the social development of the children and teenagers consists of eight stages of development. Each stage of the Erikson was regarded as the "psychological crisis" which rises with the demand and the resolution of the previous stage and the next stage. The first stage of the development is learning about the basic trust and the mistrust. It is the initial period of the infancy which is in between the first one or two years of life. When the jack is natured well with full love and caring then hedevelops the trust and security. If the reverse thing happens, that is if he are not handled properly then hebecame aggressive and insecure(Leider, 2015). The second stage is the autonomy versus shame and doubt. It happens in the early ages between the 18 months and three, when the children are trying to do the things of their own and wants their full independence. They started moving away from their parents, choose the things of their own, and make their own choice for the ir clothes and much more(Moos, 2013). Erikson theory states that if the parents allow them to do the things till the end, then they will explore many things of their own abilities. It shows an encouraging nature of the parents rather than having any shame or doubt with the ideas and intention of the children. A delicate balance and support are required from the parent. If at this stage, children are encouraged and supported by their parents then they will become more confident and brave in solving their own problems(Newman Newman, 2017). The situation is more familiar with the residents of the USA where they are allowing the children to do their work until they require assistance. They never criticize or control the children at this stage. The next stage describes the initiative nature and guilt within the children. During the age of two to five years, the children develop the feature of interacting with the other children at the school. It provides an opportunity to explore their interpersonal skills through various in itiatives. If this tendency is muffled by any means like through criticism or control, then they will develop a sense of guiltiness(Parkes Prigerson, 2013). Vygotsky's theory The main goal of this nursing theory is to deal with the more complex cognitive activities of jack which are governed and examined by various principles. The various tools and semiotic signs are given to the children to do the things exactly as it is required. The process engages the lower age limit children who are capable of doing their work or to solve any problem of their own without taking any help from the others(Sigelman Rider, 2014). Jack is provided with the verbal training about the task and he gather more information about it from various sources of their own. Headds new valid information in their existing mental schemes in order to complete the task in time and also doing it independently. The socio cultural backdrop involves the healthy interaction between the parents and the children. The adults should be able to direct and organize their children to develop their learning skills and to get more confidence on that learning. In the entire process, parents play a crucial role in the development of their child. As the parents are more knowledgeable than the children, so it is necessary for them to teach the symbols, signs, words and everything which is necessary for their child to grow properly with immense knowledge(Walker, 2017). Bronfenbrenner's theory The theory explains about the situational placements of the jack with the four distinct socio cultural layers. The children are dealing with the complex system of relationships between the Microsystems, mesosystem, exosystem and macro system. The Microsystems deals with the person and other information, the mesosystem is between the connections of various situations, the exosystem describes the direct influence on a child from the other relation and macro system tells about the relationship with the society(Wrzus, et al., 2013). Here in this case Jackacquires the knowledge from the social surroundings. The interaction of the children with the large community society helps to shape their knowledge and personal beliefs about the world. The examples of cognitive development The development of the child is done through a continuous transformation in the thought processes. The cognitive study of nursing is necessary for Jack to develop their skills and knowledge according to their age limit and ability. Various stages are explained by the Piaget where the children are categorized into age groups and depending on their maturity, experience and skills they need to cross each stage independently. For example, when the child is at very early age and playing in the cradle, they love to snatch and grab the hands of their teddy and put it on their mouth(John-Steine Mahn, 1996). When the mother intentionally put their hand on the baby, instead of the teddy they choose their mother's hand and put it in their mouth. After some months, the mother found that the child repeats the same situation and takes her hand directly to the mouth instead of the teddy. Gradually with the time they change their habit and start playing with the toys rather than taking them into th e mouth. Jackdevelops their knowledge and learns about the change in the situation which is due to the response of the stimuli. The cognitive development here plays a crucial role and helps in developing the mind of the child. For example, when the child has two options like a toy which looks attractive and a teddy, they often choose the toy rather than the teddy. If happens because they had already played with the teddy and they want some change in it. As the toy looks more attractive, they play most of the time with it. It shows their change in the response from the previous days. They are capable of understanding the change in their choice(Parkes Prigerson, 2013). Examples of social development When the parents in the early age of their children behave with them in a harsh or unreliable way, then the children develop a sense of mistrust and will not gain the confidence to believe in the world around them. Gradually they stop believing in their own abilities and become rude and arrogant. The role of the parents at the early age of the children is important in order to guide them in every possible way so that they will believe in themselves(Newman Newman, 2017). When the parents behave with the child in very jolly and lovable way, then the child develops a sense of trust and enhances their capabilities to solve any crises coming in their way. Criticizing their intention will always put them in a stack condition. When the child wants to put the shoes on the rack instead of knowing anything about the rack, in such situation parents should allow them instead f restricting them. It will develop the confidence in them. Factors influencing the cognitive and social development The factors that affect the cognitive and social development in the child are the environmental stress, nutrition, care, sensory development, stimuli, feeding practices, genetics and parental environment. These factors are considered as the most influential and effective reasons for the growing stage of the children. The physical development occurs in the children during the years 3 to 6, but more slowly during the infancy(Etzkowitz Leydesdorff, 2014). Due to lack of the nutrition and proper diet, the interest on food decreases which affects the cognitive development of the children. Sometimes the children are more curious about the foods and consume more which is again a bad symbol for their health and development. If a child has a perfect health, then it becomes easy for them to capture the knowledge from their parents, teachers as well as from the environment. The sleeping practice slows helps in developing the brain at the early age of the children(Bridges Bridges, 2017). Parents need to check the proper diet and schedule of their children so that they will easily enhance their skills and knowledge. The entire childhood depends on the parents as they are more experienced and smart. They need to take care of the feeding, nutrition, and foods of their child which helps the child to develop more at the early age. Conclusion From the above theories, it is cleared that at what age the child should be guided and after what age they should learn about their responsibilities. The beginning stage of the child should be properly guided by their parents so that they will be able to learn the symbols and language. When the child starts to progress, at that time they should be allowed to do their work independently so that they will learn from their mistakes at each step. At that point of time, the parents will only guide them instead of helping. The learning process will continue till the end of the life. In every step, there are new things to learn and explore. The thing which is important is the courage and confidence to deal with the situations. Reference Bridges, W., Bridges, S. (2017).Managing transitions: Making the most of change. Da Capo Press. Etzkowitz, H., Leydesdorff, L. (2014). The endless transition: a'Triple Helix'of university industry government relations. John-Steiner, V., Mahn, H. (1996). Sociocultural approaches to learning and development: A Vygotskian framework. Educational psychologist, 31(3-4), 191-206. Kail, R. V., Cavanaugh, J. C. (2015).Human development: A life-span view. Cengage Learning. Leider, R. J. (2015).The power of purpose: Creating meaning in your life and work. Berrett-Koehler Publishers. Moos, R. (Ed.). (2013).Coping with life crises: An integrated approach. Springer. Newman, B. M., Newman, P. R. (2017).Development through life: A psychosocial approach. Cengage Learning. Parkes, C. M., Prigerson, H. G. (2013).Bereavement: Studies of grief in adult life. Routledge. Sigelman, C. K., Rider, E. A. (2014).Life-span human development. Cengage Learning. Walker, J. (2017).Social work and human development. Learning Matters. Wrzus, C., Hnel, M., Wagner, J., Neyer, F. J. (2013). Social network changes and life events across the life span: A meta-analysis.Psychological bulletin,139(1), 53.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Race and My Community an Example of the Topic Psychology Essays by

Race and My Community Most people pull their values and the way they see life from the community in which they live. They can move or stay in their community, but they will have their community burned into their souls. A community is like a family and it is the one place where people can feel at home. According to Robert Frost, Home is where when you have to go there they have to take you in (Frost) It is where they really want to be accepted. The spinal cord is the hub of the nervous system of a human and when it is severed ones life is drastically altered or even ended. A community plays the same role as a spinal cord for values and viewpoints for a person. When the community is severed from one of its citizens, it also drastically alters an individuals life. Race is an element that can bring a group of people together so that they can create a community. I see myself as a tree with the people of my community as the roots that keep me securely grounded and provide my emotional nourishment. That has been my experience with race and my community. Need essay sample on "Race and My Community" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Communities are neighborhoods of people that are close knit and have many things in common. They are small enough that the people who reside there are usually stereotyped in one way or another. Chinatown in New York has the stereotype of being the place where tourist go to get bargains and knock off goods, Harlem is considered a dangerous community where many African Americans and Hispanic people reside. Little Italy is known for the mafia. The Hamptons is a community where highly educated wealthy people reside and the citizens of that community are thought to have perfect lives. These are just a few examples of well known communities and their stereotypes. I have even had to deal with the stereotypes of my minority community. People create communities because they need a sense of belonging. Many times they are created because of isolation such as a small rural community and other times it is because it is a suburban subdivision. However, even in a large city, people will separate themselves into many smaller communities that come together as the whole city. A community is really like an extended family. When I look at the photographs of the many generations of family members that my grandmother proudly displays, she never fails to point out the similarities between them and me. When I look at the members of my community, I also see similarities. Race is like blood that binds relatives. Race binds communities. So why would people group together and form communities? One reason they do this is for self esteem. Race can actually play a significant role in uniting communities that are struggling against poverty, racism, and inadequate services (McDowell, 2004). Race has united my neighborhood because of a sense of identity. When people are around others who share many of the same characteristics, it creates a sense of belonging. There is power in numbers and therefore, a positive self esteem is created. It is only after an individual has a sense of self, that he/she can begin to accept others who are different. Once I learned about the characteristics and traditions of my race and culture, I could then look at others and understand that they also had characteristics and traditions. If I had been singled out as different without the knowledge of my race, I know that I would have felt as if my ways were wrong. I would have also bought into the stereotypes that others have about my race. I knew that I was not a lone individual, but a part of a group who was just like me. Therefore, I do not feel different no matter where I go. The community also is important because of its role in meeting the social needs of people, especially the needs for collective involvement and social definition of self. In fact, the "self," a most important social quality of the person, is grounded in contacts and involvements in everyday life, mainly in the local society. The quest for the community, for these reasons, is a central theme in human history, past and present. (Wilkinson) A community is also a place of pride. When a person is completely accepted and can identify with the members of a community, he/she will hold a special feeling for the community. When an individual feels connected, he/she will care about the image of his/her community. People will want it to look good physically as well as look good culturally to the rest of the city. They will feel the need to pull together and help each other in times of need and celebrate when times are good. I know that if I achieve in my academic career there is a whole community of people who are ready to rejoice with me. I will work as hard as I can to keep from letting my community down. I do this because they all had a hand in who I am, and if I fail, it means that they did not do their job well. That sense of pride that I feel I bring to my race and my community is enough to encourage me to always succeed in life. Many individuals in recent years feel that they have no place in the world. The internet has caused people to see the world as their community and as a way of meeting others instead of actually going outside of their building and connecting with those in their own community. They have also allowed the televisions in their homes to replace the visiting with people of their own race. The women of my race would visit on the stoops and watch out for each others children. There was a sense of camaraderie that is vital to adults as well as children. Racial identity is an organizing asset, a means of building a sense of power, and a critical part of multiracial work. Understanding one's own cultural strengths can be a point of departure for realizing that conditions of societal disparity are shared with others (McDowell). While there are positive points about racial communities, there are also negative points. One would be economic status of the citizens of a community and also the amount of tax dollars that are spent. Many communities that are not racially diverse, especially if they are minorities, lack the funds to enhance their neighborhoods. Many of the citizens do not own the property where they reside. Their landlords, who do not live in the neighborhood, do not feel that fixing the problems of their property is a priority. Therefore, the inhabitants loose their sense of pride and do not have the money to fix the problems themselves. Because of the lack of tax dollars, there is very little money to provide opportunities for the youth of the community. It then becomes a vicious cycle to constantly be poor. The youth also have very little resources to entertain themselves and that can lead to the involvement in criminal activity as a way to make money and to fill their time. They envision black k ids hanging out, blasting their car stereos, and presumably selling crack (Mountain, 1995) Even though the members of a community will share many characteristics, people still have to closely guard against stereotypes. Stereotypes can be dangerous and lead to negative situations. Many times law enforcement will buy into the negative stereotypes of a community just because it is predominately one race. In my community, law enforcement is often missing. It is that way because their salaries are not predominately paid by the people of minority communities and because they have been conditioned to the stereotypes. They envision black kids hanging out, blasting their car stereos, and presumably selling crack (Mountain, 1995). They fear for their own lives and they also believe that the community is that way because they want to live like that. There are gangs, guns, drive by shootings, and drugs in these communities, but it is mainly because law enforcement are only in the community when they are called to a crime scene. If there were there on a regular basis, these communities would not be a hotbed of crime. Many minority communities have been taken over by gangs in recent years. Many times this is also because of the lack of law enforcement in the racial community. As the crime rate rises, youth feel that they can achieve a sense of protection from becoming a gang member. By the time they realize what they have done, it is more dangerous for them to quit the gang. There are those who leave a gang, but most have not way out of the community, therefore, if they try to leave the gang, they cannot escape the members of the gang. Another problem with minority communities is that many people who get an education and are then equipped with knowledge and financial security, leave the minority community for the larger diverse neighborhood. When they leave the minority communities, they remove the positive role models that the younger people of the community desperately need. I was extremely fortunate that there were a few educated members of my community who decided to stay and be a constructive role model. They were always a source for encouragement and empowered the youth that there was a chance. If they could become successful, so could we. They were a tremendous resource of information on how to obtain scholarships and other resources that helped me and the other youth to obtain success in our lives. They were also a constant reminder that we could be proud of our community and the members it produced and it gave us hope that one day we would be among those names that others mentioned with pride. The last problem is that those who leave their communities because they feel they have risen above it, not only rob the community that made them who they are, but they rob their children of the benefits of the minority community. I have known childhood friends whose parents left my community after they became successful, and they did not have the security that comes with a network of people who are like them. They have become isolated in a see of faces that are not like their own. They do not understand themselves, so it is even more difficult to understand others. A community is much more that soil and buildings. It is people. A community gives roots and life to its members. I know that I would not be the person I am today without my community. While others may blame their communities for their failures, I proudly acknowledge my community and what it taught me about my race. I applaud my community for my success. Man cannot take the community out of the souls of the people. It is too deep to remove. References Frost, R. Death of the Hired Man The Literature Network. Retrieved on November 25, 2007 from McDowell, C. (2004, November, 19). Report Cities Racial Identity as Positive Force in Community Building. MIT. Retrieved November 25, 2007 from Mountain, N. (1995). Race and Community: On Portlands Northeast 14th Place. Alternatives. Retrieved on November 25, 2007 from Wilkinson, K. The Small-Town Community: Its Character and Survival. Retrieved November, 25 2007 from